what are organic fertilizers

Either byproduct or end product of naturally degradable plant or animal-based materials, undergo a Chicken droppings from an organic farm would be considered an organic fertilizer. Natural fertilizers add vital organic matter to organic farming methods and they also improve soil texture. As a result, the end consumers who eat these organic products are less prone to diseases such as cancer, strokes, and skin disorders, as compared to those who consume food items produced using chemical fertilizers. Another important aspect of enteric pathogens in manure, which eventually contaminate the fresh produce, is the ability of these pathogens to be able to develop resistance against antibiotics. Liquid organic fertilizers can offer opportunities for more efficient nitrogen use when they are applied through a drip irrigation system—such an application is called fertigation. (2016a,b,c) with biogas slurry; nonessential HMs were stabilized in soil. A few important considerations before using fertigation are: (1) only use fertilizers that either dissolve completely or have particles that stay in suspension and pass through emitters without clogging, (2) the drip irrigation system should be fully pressurized before injection begins, (3) there should be a filter between the injector and the laterals to ensure that any particles are filtered out, and (4) the irrigation system must be flushed of nutrients to keep drip lines clean and prevent clogging (Marr, 1993). In conclusion, SOC stocks in the surface soil can be higher under OA than those under conventional practices, but changes in subsoil SOC stocks are not widely studied. E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes) with temperature and environmental conditions, that is, liquid dairy manure in anaerobic and limited aerobic storage conditions. However, properly designed long-term experiments including baseline data on profile SOC stocks for the conventional–organic systems comparisons, measurements of soil bulk density, and equivalent soil mass calculations are needed to credibly assess the effects of OA on SOC stocks. Biotechnologies for the reduction of survival and persistence of enteric pathogen in manure are highly advocated. About 690,000 tons were destined to fertilizer in 2016 within the EU (Dobbelaere, 2017). (2014) documented a 1-log reduction of E. coli and Campylobacter spp. longifolia Lam. When nutrients are applied shortly before they are needed, growers can reduce loss of nutrients from the root zone. Organic fertilization should also be applied at proper rates because insufficient fertilizer will result in low yield, while excessive fertilization may lead to significant deterioration in water quality, dissolved oxygen (DO) deficiency, and in turn will result in a reduction in fish yield. Similar results were also reported by Huang et al. The recommended application method for fresh animal manure, for example, cattle, swine, is to make a manure–water slurry that is splashed over the pond surface. In order to qualify as an organic fertilizer, the … Recently Manyi-Loh et al. A detailed review on the use of anaerobic digestion technology for reducing the persistence and survival of enteric pathogens has been recently documented in a review by Manyi-Loh et al. (1990, 2002); Green (1992). Small-sized particles stimulate the growth of bacteria by providing enough surface areas for the attachment and mineralization, where minerals are used for photosynthesis and phytoplankton production. The choice of organic fertilizers is an important issue in organic vegetable production. Weekly, DAP and organic manure or urea at 4 kg N ha, The best growth, yield and profitability were achieved by fertilization with feeding at 1.5% bw d. About 1.75 kg P and 28 kg N per week were best in terms of economic return and nutrient loss. The main benefit of using organic soil is it adds organic matter to the soil and naturally increases nutrient exchange. High-quality organic fertilizers are the products of natural decomposition and are easy for plants to digest. Supplemental feed (25% cp) was added to all treatments at 5% bw d, Supplemental feed (25% cp) was added (ad libitum). Materials that are used traditionally for the production of organic fertilizers are animal, crustacean, and vegetable wastes. However, controversial results have been reported on the use of poultry manure for tilapia pond fertilization. There are billions of microorganisms in the soil that are a key part of the process and they love to eat organic fertilizer. A recent study in this regard carried out by Biswas et al. Table 5.1. Nor are they likely to create a build-up of salts that could dampen plant growth. But organic fertilizers have advantages. The minerals in slurry are highly soluble and in plant-available form; moreover, application of slurry has no negative impact on soil productivity (del Pino et al., 2014). About 70 kg ha−1 per day was suggested at high alkalinity, while 140 kg ha−1 per day produced the best yield at low alkalinity. Poultry litter bedding material such as wood chips/shaving or rice hulls, as opposed to sawdust, can decompose and accumulate on the pond bottom, which is undesirable. Considering the above problems of persistence and survival of enteric pathogens in noncomposted or improperly composted manure, we must (a) understand the factors the can help in the reduction of enteric pathogens in manure and (b) develop biotechnologies for improvement of dairy manure treatment. Shevgoor et al. Table 2.3. A wide variety of organic fertilizers, including poultry manure, cattle manure, domestic sewage (sludge), green manure and composted agricultural wastes, are currently in use in tilapia pond fertilization. Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed, in Tilapia Culture (Second Edition), 2020. Organic fertilizers, whether they’re meals, manures, or composted plant material, contain N-P-K (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium), trace minerals, enzymes, vitamins, and lots of organic matter. Many of these nutrients have to be converted into inorganic forms by soil bacteria and fungi before plants can use them, so they typically are more slowly released, especially during cold weather when soil microbes are not as active. 1. These need to be worked into the soil around the plant. It’s also a good idea to consider other types of nutrients that you may need. The material recovery of digestates is an important renewable source of plant nutrients and humus, and therefore is essential for the greenhouse gas balance. Indeed, poultry manure is widely used for tilapia pond fertilization, and the main reasons are it is readily available from feedlots and in a convenient dry form for transportation and application. Organic fertilizers are labeled with the percentage concentration of nutrients. Massive mortality of Nile tilapia has been reported in a number of farms at Kafr El-Shaikh Governorate in Egypt, due to excessive application of organic fertilizer (El-Sayed, Alexandria, 2004; personal communication). In agriculture, the biogas slurries are usually applied in soil to enhance soil fertility and mineral contents like nitrogen, but they are also used as an efficient amendment for the reclamation of contaminated soils. Moisture content is another factor that reduces or dilutes the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of organic fertilizers. Therefore, fertilization of ponds infested with higher plants may reduce the development of phytoplankton blooms. Wikipedia defines fertilizer as any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming material) that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. An environmental concern which has recently received much attention is that agricultural facilities having storage of large quantities of manure especially in dried form, may serve as a source of airborne contamination of leafy greens being cultivated in nearby fields. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Application of organic fertilizers to ponds depends on the fertilizer form and moisture content. Made from natural sources, organic fertilizers provide garden plants with slow-release, consistent nourishment. Wastes of birds may contribute mainly Salmonella contamination, whereas enterotoxigenic E. coli can be introduced from waste of pigs or E. coli O157:H7 from cattle. Green et al. In a… (2000), Sawyer (2009), ASABE (2010), Kirsten (2013), Possible Uses of Processed Slaughter Byproducts, Sustainable Meat Production and Processing, A Review on the Implications of Interaction Between Human Pathogenic Bacteria and the Host on Food Quality and Disease, Management Strategies for Organic Vegetable Fertility, Edwards et al., 1994a, 1994b; Shevgoor et al., 1994; Diana, 2012, Green et al., 1990; Watanabe et al., 2002, Njoku and Ejiogu, 1999; Abdelghany and Ahmad, 2002; Mataka and Kang'ombe, 2007; Longwe et al., 2010; El-Sayed, 2013a, 2013b, Alejandro Castillo, ... M. Ofelia Rodríguez-García, in, MANURE/WASTE MANAGEMENT | Waste Management in Europe, Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences (Second Edition), Effect of Soil Nutrition on Aroma Compound Formation in Organically Grown Apples (cv. Pennington Fast Acting Gypsum is a mined product but contains a synthetic polymer, so it is not an organic soil conditioner. All trademarks are either the property of Central Garden & Pet Company, its subsidiaries, divisions, affiliated and/or related companies or the property of their respective owners. For example, guano, dried and powdered blood, ground bone, crushed shells, finely pulverized fish, phosphate rock, and wood. Organic fertilizer contains carbon as part of its chemical makeup; and it is the carbon, along with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that feeds microbes and enables them to make nutrients available for plants in a naturally occurring biological process. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the use of different organic fertilizers on the formation of aroma compounds in cv. It has been assumed that supplemental and complete processed feeds are better-quality inputs than organic fertilizers in semi-intensive fish ponds. Ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate and potassium sulfate are examples of processed fertilizers.” Whereas, with organic fertilizer, the product is composed of natural materials like mined minerals, animal or plant material and have very little processing. Organic fertilizers are carbon-based compounds that increase the productivity and growth quality of plants. Mostly, the N, P, K, Cu, and Zn are found highly concentrated in biogas residues if manures are used as feedstock, and Zn could be more than 2000 mg/kg in biogas slurry (Chen et al., 2013; Huang et al., 2016a,b,c). This allows the grower greater control over nutrient availability to their crop (Marr, 1993). (2006) who explored the trophic structure in organically fertilized and feed-supplied Nile tilapia ponds using multivariate analyses. Organic fertilizers: Organic fertilizers are made when microbes decompose plant parts (e.g., ash, moss, bark, compost, grass clippings, crop residues, etc.) According to Article 9(f) of the regulation 1069/2009, fetuses, oocytes, embryos, and semen which are not destined for breeding purposes as well as dead-in-shell poultry have to be disposed as Category 2 material using pressure sterilization (at least 133 °C, for at least 20 min with an absolute pressure of at least 3 bar). Fertilization plus feeding was better than fertilization followed by feeding. (1989) compared the effects of chicken manure, dairy cow manure and inorganic fertilizer on the production of male Nile tilapia. Organic fertilizers are made from mined rock minerals, and natural plant and animal materials. Buffalo manure is also characterized by large-size particles, high C:N ratio (about 26:1) and poor soluble nutrients. Nutrient composition (on an as is basis) and dry matter content of select animal manures and agricultural by-products that can be used as organic fertilizer. The animal's diet, the use and type of bedding material, manure age, and how it was stored are factors that affect manure nutrient value; these factors can vary seasonally on and among farms, and regionally or on a larger geographic scale. Organic fertilizer is also called “organic manure.” The definition of organic fertilizer is simple. (2016). The biochemistry of slurry is totally dependent on the type of feedstock used for aerobic and/or anaerobic digestion. All content copyright © 2019 Pennington Seed, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Agricultural by-products, for example, alfalfa meal, rice bran, can be broadcast over the pond surface along the windward bank or mixed with water to make a slurry that is splashed over the pond surface (Table 2.3). In manure which is in slurry or liquid form, survival of the enteric pathogens is high because of the presence of favorable moisture and alkaline pH (Cools et al., 2001). AP, ammonium phosphate; SP, superphosphate; TSP, triple superphosphate; DAP, diammonium phosphate; MSP, mono superphosphate; bw, body weight. However, fermentation may reduce nitrogen content of the manure and in turn would reduce its potential effectiveness. Sometimes the treatment process is able to inactivate infectious agents leading to an epidemiologically harmless product, for example, composting. Nutrients are concentrated in industrial processes to make them more available to plants. (1978) found that chicken manure was not a very effective fertilizer in blue tilapia ponds in El-Salvador, and the addition of inorganic P (but not N) increased fish yields. These liquid fertilizers may be applied on a regular basis, depending on the nutrient need of the crop. Male and female reproduction tracts as well as brain material that were not categorized as specified risk material are preceded accordingly. Unlike the traditional chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers have to occur naturally. This means that the effectiveness of certain fertilizer is probably site-specific, and fertilizer requirements should be evaluated on a farm-by-farm basis, and even on a pond-by-pond basis. Gerald E. Brust, in Safety and Practice for Organic Food, 2019. In general, application of fresh manure or waste of marine origin must never be authorized for any reason in the production of fruits and vegetables. (2015) has recently documented a report that focuses on the characterization of parameters that focus on the survival of S. enterica in or on dust particles of dried turkey manure and litter that could be aerosolized during handling and survive on leafy greens in the fields. It is also recommended that buffalo manure be supplemented with urea (Edwards et al., 1996). Rather than depend on you for feeding them a steady supply of synthetic fertilizers, they find what they need in soil that … Nitrogen and phosphorus content is lower, often substantially lower, in organic fertilizers compared to chemical fertilizers. Anuta (1995) found that the best yield of Tilapia guineensis reared in tanks fertilized with 0, 100 and 150 kg chicken manure ha−1 per day was achieved at 100 kg ha−1/day. It is also characterized by small-size particles and better C:N ratio (about 10:1) and also by its solubility in water. Wheat bran, local diets, pig diets; twice per day, 2% bw d, 25% cp floating pellets, twice a day, to satiation, 60 days after stocking. The nutrient content of organic fertilizers varies greatly among source materials, and readily biodegradable materials make better nutrient sources. Animal manures are also better applied in tilapia ponds in fine particulate or colloidal state. Associated benefits are thus a higher infiltration and moisture and nutrients retention, and better plant growth (Irshad and Sharma, 2015). Green, in Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture, 2015. The effectiveness of fertilization depends on type and composition of fertilizer (Table 5.1), culture systems (monoculture vs. polyculture), fish species and species combinations, stocking size and density and environmental conditions. In contrast to amendments with high C:N ratios, the use of mature compost from a mixture with a low C:N ratio appeared to be the most suitable for organic lettuce production. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Additional examples of organic fertilizer sources include kelp, guano, bone and blood meals, molasses, and fish emulsions. Water quality, particularly alkalinity and ammonia concentration, should be considered when applying organic fertilization in tilapia ponds. However, it has been observed that there are reports on the occurrence of food-borne pathogenic bacteria on crops, which were grown in soil that contained contaminated manures. In a 6-12-0 formula, for example, there is 6% Nitrogen, 12% Phosphorous, and 0% Potassium. Take the natural approach and amend with soil conditioners, such as earthworm castings, which add organic matter, including humid acid, and desirable microorganisms to your garden soil. Fertilization until d 80, followed by feeding. This process increases fermentation rate and reduces the time needed for achieving maximal primary production in the ponds, compared with dry manure. However, some controversial data have been published that slurries could be a source of HM contamination because continuous application of heavy metal–loaded biogass slurry could result in an accumulation of HMs in soil (Bolan et al., 2003; Bian et al., 2016). Indeed, the types and quantities of nutrients required and the relative amounts of fertilizers needed to provide such nutrients are varying, depending on the type of fertilizer used, nutrient contents of the water, types of bottom soil, water quality, environmental climatic conditions and geographical location. (1994) reported that only 6% of buffalo manure nitrogen was released as dissolved nitrogen and 35% of total P was released as soluble reactive P. Fertilization rate higher than 100 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1 per day caused water quality deterioration, high suspended solids and reduced light penetration and phytoplankton production. In contrast, Ledgerwood et al. Inorganic fertilizers: Inorganic fertilizers are made from minerals from clay, rocks, or sand. Organic fertilizers have four times less the N-P-K levels of synthetic fertilizers. Organic gardening emphasizes cultivating your garden so that it sustains enriching soil, plants and beneficial insects. The NH4-N, NO3 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were all increased with increasing fertilization rates. The nutrient content of organic fertilizers varies greatly among source materials, and readily biodegradable materials make better nutrient sources. Dehydrated animal manure, results in the generation of dust-like particles that can be small enough to become readily airborne (Berry et al., 2015). Organic fertilizers are especially popular among home gardeners because of the many potential benefits they provide to the soil. Unlike commercial chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizer for gardens is typically made up of single ingredients, and can be matched to your garden’s particular nutritional needs. Hopkins and Cruz (1982) reported that the yield of Nile tilapia reared in polyculture with common carp and snakehead murrel Channa striata or Clarias batrachus in the Philippines was better with pig manure or chicken manure than with duck manure. But an indoor garden can exercise your green thumb all year long — and liven up your home, too. African catfish (59 g) were used for seed control. Average tilapia weights at harvest were much higher in chicken manure-fertilized ponds (252 g) than in pellet-fed (174 g) and grass-fertilized (172 g) ponds, while the net yield was higher in pellet-fed ponds, due to their higher stocking density. Organic manure stimulates food production by adding organic detritus that stimulates heterotrophic food chains and increase primary productivity. Generally speaking, a fertilizing rate of <100 kg ha−1 d−1 of poultry manure increases phytoplankton productivity and improves fish production (see Table 5.1). However, organic matter decomposition and nutrient mineralization occurs over days in contrast to immediate nutrient availability from chemical fertilizer. However, it always is advisable to analytically determine the nutrient content of the organic fertilizer. Leticia Mora, ... Fidel Toldrá, in Sustainable Meat Production and Processing, 2019. They include ingredients like manure, guano, dried and powdered blood, ground bone, crushed shells, finely pulverized fish, phosphate rock, and wood. When using organic fertilizers in agriculture, the transmission of microorganisms infecting human beings and animals has to be considered. An organic fertilizer is a fertilizer that is derived from organic sources, including organic compost, cattle manures, poultry droppings and domestic sewage. For organic apple production, only organic fertilizers can be used to supply the soil with nitrogen. Hoelzle, in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences (Second Edition), 2014. From a gardeners perspective, fertilizer may contain NPK and minor nutrients (sulfur, magnesium, iron etc). Nutrient value of animal manures is more variable than that of agricultural by-products. Similar results have also been reported by Green et al. Therefore, buffalo manure rate should not exceed 50 kg ha−1 per day (Edwards et al., 1994a). They found that chicken litter produced the best net fish production (see details in Table 5.1). Furthermore, high-quality soil improvers and fertilizers can be produced sustainably from biowaste and green waste by treating it in composting plants or combined anaerobic digestion and composting facilities. Produced phytoplankton provides oxygen for respiration of aerobic organisms present in the pond. This helps make soil borne nutrients, such as iron, more available to plants.2 On the other hand, poultry manure is a better source of manure in tilapia ponds than that of large ruminants as it has a higher N (and P) content. Alaska by Pennington Pure Kelp Plant Food 0.13-0-0.60, large majority of insects are beneficial or benign, Worry Free Brand Insecticide and Miticide, How to Grow Flowers, Herbs and Vegetables Indoors, How to Identify, Fight and Prevent Root Rot, All You Need to Know About Organic Fertilizer. During the winter months, as outdoor gardens and flower beds sit dormant, many gardeners truly miss tending to and nurturing their plants. Thus, crop rotations along with the use of legume–grass leys, manure application, and animal husbandry are important practices of reducing SOC losses under OA. Do you enjoy the uplifting show of spring bulbs every year? An organic fertilizer is a plant fertilizer that is derived from organic sources. However, this scenario may not be easily applied in some countries. Powders. McGeachin and Stickney (1982) found that 70–140 kg ha−1 dry, laying hen manure produced the best growth and survival of O. aureus reared in simulated sewage lagoons, depending on water alkalinity. What are organic fertilizers? It is considered to be one of the main nutrients for green food. Poultry litter can be applied by broadcasting over the ponds surface. It enriches the soil with carbonic compounds essential for plant growth. This assumption was tested by Muendo et al. The organic carbon content of organic fertilizer can be of equal or greater importance than its nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Application of organic fertilizer promotes increases in heterotrophic bacterial biomass, which stimulates other secondary productivity and mineralizes nutrients to stimulate primary productivity (Schroeder, 1978; Anderson, 1987; Colman and Edwards, 1987; Qin et al., 1995; Barkoh et al., 2005). Since yields under OA systems are lower, direct soil C inputs are also lower compared to those under conventional systems. Many tend to sprinkles the contents over the soil and then wait for it to be broken down and then absorbed, but this isn’t the way to use them! Organic manures enhance secondary production in fish ponds more than inorganic fertilizers. As in nature, an organic soil alive with microbes and fungi releases nutrients slowly to plants. Organic fertilizers range from organic compost to manure, but must be extracted from all organic … As these products are made from unprocessed, natural ingredients like manure, compost 2, or corn meal, organic fertilizers are one of the best solutions for creating a healthy environment for plants to grow. Application of biogas slurry, alone or with plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), decreases HM uptake by wheat (Nafees et al., 2017). Any nutrient in a water-soluble form is readily available for plant uptake just after application, leading to a more efficient use of fertilizers (Buchanan, 2000). Similar studies on the prevalence and persistence of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure have been reported by Resende et al. Organic fertilizers and soil improvers may be placed on the market within the European Union if they are derived from Category II or Category III meat byproducts, if they have been produced in accordance with the conditions for pressure sterilization or with other conditions to prevent risks arising to public and animal health, and if they come from approved or registered establishments or plants (EC, 2009). When talking about organic fertilizers , it is necessary to clarify that in some countries, organic fertilizers are those that can be used in organic farming ( derived from animal matter, animal excreta, human excreta, and vegetable matter )according to some international standard (European, North American, Japanese, etc.) The fish (18 g) were fed 25% crude protein (cp) floating pellets, fertilized with chicken manure or with partially composted field grass. In this regard, water depth in tilapia ponds should be more than 1 metre in order to limit light penetration and macrophyte growth (Boyd et al., 2016). Organic fertilizers have been widely used in tilapia ponds, especially in Asia (Edwards et al., 1994a, 1994b; Shevgoor et al., 1994; Diana, 2012), Central America (Green et al., 1990; Watanabe et al., 2002) and Africa (Njoku and Ejiogu, 1999; Abdelghany and Ahmad, 2002; Mataka and Kang'ombe, 2007; Longwe et al., 2010; El-Sayed, 2013a, 2013b). Organic fertilizers usually come in the following forms: 1. Organic fertilizers comprise a variety of plant-derived materials that range from fresh or dried plant material to animal manures and litters to agricultural by-products (Wohlfarth and Schroeder, 1979; From: Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture, 2015, B.W. Organic fertilizers comprise a variety of plant-derived materials that range from fresh or dried plant material to animal manures and litters to agricultural by-products (Wohlfarth and Schroeder, 1979; Das and Jana, 2003; Kumar et al., 2004). W. Philipp, L.E. Organic fertilizers are natural fertilizers obtained from plants and animals. Fresh manure may be preferred to dry manure for pond fertilization. In the case of meat and bone meals derived from Category II material and processed animal proteins intended to be used as organic fertilizers and soil improvers, they have to be mixed with a component to exclude the subsequent use of the mixture for feeding purposes (EC, 2009). It appears from these discrepancies concerning pond fertilization that this subject is more complex, confusing and wider than we could imagine. Also through respiration, the bacterial population consumes oxygen and heavy applications of organic matter can result in low predawn pond dissolved oxygen concentration (Qin et al., 1995). Specifically, the effects of OA practices on SOC stocks depend on climate, soil conditions, soil erosion rates, grazing systems, and water and nutrient management. Rishi Mahajan, ... Gunjan Goel, in Food Safety and Preservation, 2018. Therefore, the epidemiological risk of fertilizers produced during the recycling of wastes of different organic origin has to be estimated. The authors concluded that organically fertilized ponds can perform equally well as pellet-driven ponds, or even better. Organic fertilizers are plant fertilizers derived from organic matter. Mostly, it refers to compost made from animal waste or animal and plant residues that are rich in natural by-products. Hepher and Pruginin (1982) suggested that fresh manure be used for tilapia pond fertilization and stated that fresh manure disintegrates in water into colloidal particles which are easily attacked by bacteria and readily incorporated into food web. The farmer must assure the safety of his composts, whether self-produced, or acquired from specialized suppliers. These are referred to as the NPK ratio, which stands for Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium. Organic fertilizer inputs in agricultural fields in the present scenario has significant environmental benefits over the use of chemical fertilizers and the practice has gained much importance. In this regard, buffalo manure has not been recommended as a major organic fertilizer in tilapia ponds, as it causes a reduction in DO, due to the respiratory demand of the bacteria (Edwards et al., 1994b). (i.e., 90% decay rate) as opposed to a 2-log reduction of Salmonella spp. This leads in some instances to restrictions for the scope of application. (2016) indicates that because of extensive use of veterinary antibiotics, there is high persistence and survival of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock manure. For example, adding similar amounts of compost-C to organic lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Synthetic fertilizers don’t enhance soil life or add organic matter. In summary, blood, placenta, wool, feather, hair, horn, and raw milk from animals which are not suspicious for carrying agents that can be transmitted to humans and animals are allowed to be used in biogas plants after pasteurization (70 °C, 1 h according to the regulation 1069/2009). Organic fertilizers can range from organic compost to cow manure, but they must be derived from all-organic sources.

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