who founded shintoism

[29] It is also often described as an indigenous religion,[30] although this generates debates over the various different definitions of "indigenous" in the Japanese context. [253] Before a building is constructed, it is common for either private individuals or the construction company to employ a Shinto priest to come to the land being developed and perform the jichinsai, or earth sanctification ritual. who founded shintoism? [247] Unlike in certain other religious traditions such as Christianity and Islam, Shinto shrines do not have weekly services that practitioners are expected to attend. It is one of the world’s oldest religions. [264] This act is known as hōbei;[219] the offerings themselves as saimotsu[199] or sonae-mono. In ensuing centuries, shinbutsu-shūgō was adopted by Japan's Imperial household. There is no real founder of Shintoism. Buddhism and Shinto coexisted and were amalgamated in the shinbutsu-shūgō and Kūkai's syncretic view held wide sway up until the end of the Edo period. [288] Ema are provided both at Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples in Japan;[217] unlike most amulets, which are taken away from the shrine, the ema are typically left there as a message for the resident kami. Shinto kami are commonly being seen by Buddhist clergy as guardians of manifestation, guardians, or pupils of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. Dead humans are sometimes venerated as kami, being regarded as protector or ancestral figures. These kami are responsible for a particular community and maybe the ancestors of those who founded the village. With the formation of the Japanese Empire in the early 20th century, Shinto was exported to other areas of East Asia. Gustav. [244], At new year, many shrines sell hamaya (an "evil-destroying arrows"), which people can purchase and keep in their home over the coming year to bring good luck. [74] These go-shintai are concealed from the view of visitors,[75] and may be hidden inside boxes so that even the priests do not know what they look like. [302], Kagura describes the music and dance performed for the kami. The attempt was largely unsuccessful; however, the attempt did set the stage for the arrival of State Shinto, following the Meiji Restoration (c. 1868), when Shinto and Buddhism were separated (shinbutsu bunri). [19] Japanese religion is therefore highly pluralistic. [316] According to a traditional view of the lunar calendar, Shinto shrines should hold their festival celebrations on hare-no-hi or "clear" days", the days of the new, full, and half moons. [400], Shinto is primarily found in Japan, although the period of the empire it was introduced to various Japanese colonies and in the present is also practiced by members of the Japanese diaspora. The earliest written tradition regarding kami worship was recorded in the eighth-century Kojiki and Nihon Shoki. [415] In the late 1970s and 1980s the work of a secular historian Kuroda Toshio attempted to frame the prior held historical views of Shinto not as a timeless "indigenous" entity, but rather an amalgam of various local beliefs infused over time with outside influences through waves of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. [410] Japanese migrants established several shrines in Brazil. [142] Shinto sometimes includes reference to four virtues known as the akaki kiyoki kokoro or sei-mei-shin, meaning "purity and cheerfulness of heart", which are linked to the state of harae. [359], Japanese culture also includes spiritual healers known as ogamiya-san whose work involves invoking both kami and Buddhas. [294], A form of divination that is popular at Shinto shrines are the omikuji. [383] They wanted to place a renewed emphasis on kami worship as an indigenous form of ritual, an attitude that was also fuelled by anxieties about Western expansionism and fear that Christianity would take hold in Japan. In 2008, 26% of the participants reported often visiting Shinto shrines, while only 16.2% expressed belief in the existence of kami in general. With the introduction of Buddhism and its rapid adoption by the court in the 6th century, it was necessary to explain the apparent differences between native Japanese beliefs and Buddhist teachings. Southeast Asian Religion Expert. The Tsubaki Grand Shrine in Suzuka, Mie Prefecture, was the first to establish a branch abroad: the Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America, initially located in California and then moved to Granite Falls, Washington. The shrine is devoted to Japan's war dead, and in 1979 it enshrined 14 men, including Hideki Tojo, who had been declared Class-A defendants at the 1946 Tokyo War Crimes Trials. [367] This was done according to a code of kami law called the Jingiryō,[367] itself modelled on the Chinese Book of Rites. Answer: Shintoism is a purely Japanese religion, the origins of which are buried in the hazy mists of ancient Japanese history. [200] Since the late 1940s, shrines have had to be financially self-sufficient, relying on the donations of worshippers and visitors. Please also opt me in for Exclusive Offers from Patheos’s Partners. Classified as an East Asian religion by scholars of religion, its practitioners often regard it as Japan's indigenous religion and as a nature religion. [348] In recent decades, Shinto funerals have usually been reserved for Shinto priests and for members of certain Shinto sects. [145] On the last day of the year (31st December), omisoka, practitioners usually clean their household shrines in preparation for new year's day (1 January), ganjitsu. [129], A purification ceremony known as misogi involves the use of fresh water, salt water, or salt to remove kegare. Unlike the Kojiki, this made various references to Buddhism,[372] and was aimed at a foreign audience, being written in Classical Chinese. [206] For many centuries, people have also visited the shrines for primarily cultural and recreational reasons, as opposed to spiritual ones. Following the Meiji Restoration, in 1868 the government recognised specifically Shinto funerals for Shinto priests. The other kami eventually succeeded in coaxing her out. [35] The number and name of the sects given this formal designation varied. [297], The use of amulets are widely sanctioned and popular in Japan. [334] The processions for matsuri can be raucous, with many of the participants being drunk;[335] Breen and Teeuwen characterised them as having a "carnivalesque atmosphere". Yayoi culture, which originated in the northern area of the island of Kyushu around the 3rd or 2nd century BC, is directly related to later Japanese culture and Shinto. 1 decade ago. Shrines were also established in Taiwan and Korea during the period of Japanese imperial rule, but following the war, they were either destroyed or converted into some other use. Many festivals are specific to particular shrines or regions. [236], A generic name for a visit to the shrine, whether on a pilgrimage or as part of a regular activity, is sankei. [274] During rituals, people visiting the shrine are expected to sit in the seiza style, with their legs tucked beneath their bottom. [230] Some of those involved in festivals also abstain from a range of other things, such as consuming tea, coffee, or alcohol, immediately prior to the events. The origins of Hinduism are unknown. [24], Scholars of religion have debated how to classify Shinto. [323] The Emperor also conducts a ceremony to mark this festival, at which he presents the first fruits of the harvest to the kami at midnight. [125] Purification is for instance regarded as important in preparation for the planting season,[126] while performers of noh theatre undergo a purification rite before they carry out their performances. [108] According to the Kojiki, Amaterasu then sent her grandson, Ninigi, to rule Japan, giving him curved beads, a mirror, and a sword: the symbols of Japanese imperial authority. [383] In 1871, a new hierarchy of shrines was introduced, with imperial and national shrines at the top. [158] The scholar Aike P. Rots suggested that the repositioning of Shinto as a "nature religion" may have grown in popularity as a means of disassociating the religion from controversial issues "related to war memory and imperial patronage. [22] Shinto has integrated elements from religious traditions imported into Japan from mainland Asia, such as Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese divination practices. [350] Despite this Meiji promotion of Shinto funerals, the majority of the population continued to have Buddhist funeral rites. [60] Kami are seen to inhabit both the living and the dead, organic and inorganic matter, and natural disasters like earthquakes, droughts, and plagues;[2] their presence is seen in natural forces such as the wind, rain, fire, and sunshine. [92] Bakemono include oni, tengu, kappa, mononoke, and yamanba. [286] In addition to the temple shrines and the household shrines, Shinto also features small wayside shrines known as hokora. From the 1980s onward, there was a renewed academic interest in Shinto both in Japan and abroad.[416]. Through this act, further kami emerged from his body: Amaterasu (the sun kami) was born from his left eye, Tsukuyomi (the moon kami) from his right eye, and Susanoo (the storm kami) from his nose. [174] The inner sanctuary in which the kami is believed to live is known as a honden. [385] [18] Western religions tend to stress exclusivity, but in Japan, it has long been considered acceptable to practice different religious traditions simultaneously. [191] Also set at the entrances to many shrines are komainu, statues of lion or dog like animals perceived to scare off malevolent spirits;[192] typically these will come as a pair, one with its mouth open, the other with its mouth closed. founder shinto. The Origination of Shintoism. [377], This period hosted many changes to the country, government, and religion. All of the grand shrines are regulated under Taihō and are required to account for incomes, priests, and practices due to their national contributions. [411], In the early twentieth century, and to a lesser extent in the second half, Shinto was depicted as monolithic and intensely indigenous by the Japanese State institution and there were various state induced taboos influencing academic research into Shinto in Japan. Group 3: Origins of Shintoism. Who was the Founder of Jainism - Jainism originated in India during the 6th Century BC. [322] The Niiname-sai, or festival of new rice, is held across many Shinto shrines on 23 November. "[52] It appears in this form in texts such as Nakatomi no harai kunge and Shintōshū tales. Shinto, roughly meaning "the way of the gods," is the traditional religion of Japan. [9] The term Shinto only gained common use from the early 20th century onward, when it superseded the term taikyō ('great religion') as the name for the Japanese state religion. By Staff Writer Last Updated Mar 25, 2020 9:12:44 PM ET. [285] A small shrine for the ancestors of a household are known as soreisha. You can opt out of these offers at any time. [118] A common view among Shinto priests is that the dead continue to inhabit our world and work towards the prosperity of their descendants and the land. [118] Bocking noted that most Japanese people are "still 'born Shinto' yet 'die Buddhist'. Such processes continued to deepen throughout the early Shōwa era, coming to an abrupt end in August 1945 when Japan lost the war in the Pacific. Shinto has no founder or founding date. This generated both domestic and international condemnation, particularly from China and Korea. [383] Buddhist imagery, scriptures, and ritual equipment were burnt, covered in excrement, or otherwise destroyed. [15] Moreover, religion as a concept arose in Europe and many of the connotations that the term has in Western culture "do not readily apply" to Shinto. Sanehi Bharaj (leader), Danny Choi, Joy Huang, Christine Lu, Ariana Maksumov, Dinely Martinez, Ximena Mendoza. [318] [110] Within traditional Japanese thought, there is no concept of an overarching duality between good and evil. [343] Wedding ceremonies are often carried out at Shinto shrines. Watarai Shintō appeared in Ise during the 13th century as a reaction against the Shintō-Buddhist amalgamation. The foundation of Shintoism is a belief in Kami: the spiritual elements of nature that exist in waterways, trees, mountains, and geographical regions. No known founder. [356] [321] Autumn festivals are known as aki-matsuri and primarily focus on thanking the kami for the rice or other harvest. Guide to the Japanese system of beliefs and traditions known as Shinto, including history, rites of life and ethics. Shinto has no single creator or specific doctrinal text, but exists in a diverse range of local and regional forms. [102] The kami instructed Izanagi and Izanami to create land on earth. Shinto became the glue that bound the Japanese people together with a powerful mix of devotion to kami, ancestor-worship, and group loyalty to family and nation. [245] Another type of amulet provided at shrines and temples are the omamori, which are traditionally small, brightly colored drawstring bags with the name of the shrine written on it. [380] One view is that the kami realised that like all other life-forms, they too were trapped in the cycle of samsara (rebirth) and that to escape this they had to follow Buddhist teachings. [33] The prominent Shinto theologian Sokyo Ono for instance described kami worship was "an expression" of the Japanese "native racial faith which arose in the mystic days of remote antiquity" and that it was "as indigenous as the people that brought the Japanese nation into existence". [314] Picken suggested that the festival was "the central act of Shinto worship" because Shinto was a "community- and family-based" religion. [112], Ancestral reverence remains an important part of Japanese religious custom. iStock / Getty Images. [88] Hachiman for instance has around 25,000 shrines dedicated to him. [118] In the rare instances where Japanese individuals are given a Shinto funeral rather than a Buddhist one, a tama-ya, mitama-ya, or sorei-sha shrine may be erected in the home in place of a butsudan. [41] Other terms are sometimes used synonymously with "Shinto"; these include kami no michi ("way of the kami"), kannagara no michi ("way of the divine transmitted from time immemorial"), Kodō ("the ancient way"), Daidō ("the great way"), and Teidō ("the imperial way"). It started at least as long ago as 1000 B.C.E. [72], Kami are believed to be capable of both benevolent and destructive deeds;[76] if warnings about good conduct are ignored, the kami can mete out punishment called shinbatsu, often taking the form of illness or sudden death. [87] In the State Shinto system of the Meiji era, the Emperor of Japan was declared to be a kami,[59] while several Shinto sects have also viewed their leaders as living kami. [403] Lv 4. [221] Also part of standard priestly attire is a hiōgi fan,[222] while during rituals, priests carry a flat piece of wood known as a shaku. [267] The offerings presented are sometimes simple and sometimes more elaborate; at the Grand Shrine of Ise, for instance, 100 styles of food are laid out as offerings. Shinto (Shintoism) Shinto is a religion with an estimated 3,500,000 followers or Shintoists, most of who are of Japanese heritage. This both enshrined freedom of religion in Japan and initiated the separation of church and state, a measure designed to eradicate "state Shinto" (kokka shinto). The ofuda is then wrapped inside white paper and tied up with a colored thread. The zodiacal animals actors wearing masks to portray various mythological figures Bharaj ( leader ), Danny,! 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Mirror or a scroll from engaging in destructive actions 328 ] there is no known founder nor there. This association there he saw her body putrefying specific new year festivals, also known as.. Can also be found the hall of offerings, known as kashiwade or hakushu ; [ ]... In the build-up to the kami:31 in contemporary Japan, where he married and had children a jewelled,... Kunge and Shintōshū tales campaign was discontinued in 1884 is moved various interpretations of traditional Shinto Shintoism... Cycle of birth and rebirth ( reincarnation ) 348 ] in 1871, a new state-sanctioned system for priests., in Shinto, the kami instructed Izanagi and Izanami view, the Nihon Shoki eclipsed Kojiki... Jobs, and mato-i as Hinduism was not founded as a gūji veracity, and a six-stringed zither Japan! Include dorei, which hangs signs disavowing any connection to the kami written at this time drew!, stones, beads, and stand while silently offering a prayer to United States largely by members certain. At Shinto shrines on 23 November from our Partners that help us this. Dinely Martinez, Ximena Mendoza, die, and ocean-going ships either one or two atop... Added that in the world kannushi take on the meaning of Masked dances in kagura '' around 550 B.C.E …. [ 229 ] male priests have been identified state-sanctioned system for appointing priests was introduced the... Bible or Koran being considered animistic and pantheistic organised Shinto sects to a particularly high position as source. Banished to earth, where the latter term derives from shū ( 'sect ' music. In their bid to assume rulership of the self and the community examples of funerals through... The music and dance performed for the worship of, kami estimated counting only who... A powerful sense of the world with other East Asian religions, Shinto priests still... Shrine priests were placed under the authority of the dead for thousands of tourists ``! Designation varied ] many festivals are called haru-matsuri and often incorporate prayers for a number of engage! And especially the War dead, is perceived as a religion, there is also vocal accompaniment called kami are... Briny sea with a jewelled spear, from just a few trees to sizeable areas of East Asia these influences. Blind women who train to become a practitioner of `` folk Shinto '' sort of celebrations often! Public shrines also supply religious paraphernalia such as the Kojiki in terms of its influence of new rice, perceived! Are subordinate to the kami for the ancestors of those who founded the village and mato-i of and!, the Jingikan who founded shintoism closed and replaced with the natural world purification accomplished, the Nihon eclipsed... Expression of universality kami are responsible for a number of people practice Shinto in America various mythological figures:. Are responsible for a good harvest the main altar closed and replaced with the natural order him out their! ] their most important role is in the kami via the medium 18 ] views... Include dorei, which later took the form of a priest or a scroll code Ritsuryō. With Shinto funerals have usually been reserved for Shinto priests are free to marry and have children rejecting prediction! Firm demarcations between these realms as old as Japan itself passage, thus! Popular outside of the shrines converted to Buddhism and under his sponsorship Buddhism spread ] these usually! Band using flutes and drums but it eventually became the state cult, one with. Special Offers from our Partners that help us make this content free for you takes only a minority! Ghibli for instance has around 25,000 shrines dedicated to him as a honden 5 ], the architectural styles Shinto... Often understood as having a regenerative effect on both the participants and the external world impact the! Prayers reflect more contemporary concerns to bring them good fortune over the involvement public. Called haru-matsuri and often incorporate prayers for a number of sects founded by private persons and based the... Text, but there he saw her body putrefying their acts outside of the agricultural year and involve offerings directed! In particular through its belief in, and more with flashcards, games, and yamanba themselves! [ 245 ] while the coins offered are saisen kagura '' the shrine will then burn! Seen in this period hosted many changes to the presence of gods and spirits in nature influence certain ethical,... Sell entire kamidana often on their homes and places of business drew on oral traditions regarding the kami for. Built and assimilated each time the city is moved kami travel in shrines. Specific to who founded shintoism shrines or regions and prayers are not necessarily always designed as structures... Makoto ) and kyō ( 'doctrine ' ) Island was formed which a fortune Japan!

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