background knowledge in reading

The term schema came up again and again in some recent comprehension webinars and workshops that I attended and it really got me thinking about how I work with my own son on his comprehension skills. Background knowledge acts as scaffolding, so when a student builds on existing information they already know, they’re better able to understand and remember the material. You may think it’s cool to teach physics using a trebuchet, but not all students have been exposed to the same ideas that you have.”. Home » Literacy Lines » Background Knowledge and Reading Comprehension, A recent article “Why American Students Haven’t Gotten Better at Reading in 20 Years” in The Atlantic addressed the critical role that background knowledge plays in the ability to comprehend. Seventy‐nine adult Korean learners of English as a foreign language participated and completed tasks for working memory, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading … There are multiple challenges for ELLs at all levels of English proficiency in effectively partaking in the close reading of complex texts. But then, most people who go to movies, or have a TV set, will know what these are. If a reader knows much about a topic, his/her reading comprehension rises. I first read a piece he wrote about this in 2006 “How Knowledge Helps” around the same time I read E.D. The purpose of background information is so that the reader will comprehend what the author is trying to convey. Don’t be fooled – you cannot comprehend text without the requisite content knowledge or vocabulary. 3 . We lack k-8 content and vocabulary teaching. ⬇️ https://t.co/YqUvJEf4kt #READ3384 #assessment, — Brandi Hutcheson (@BLHutch94) October 15, 2019. Leave a Comment . The ability to process and store information is a component of what … Background knowledge is essential to comprehension, to making connections, and to understanding the big ideas. But they ALSO need a set of meta-cognitive strategies to process and organize the information they are reading. Dr Andrea Révész. But, the term is more common in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries, and it is a little old-fashioned. Johnny carried a jug of water. The CCSS now call for us to be more cognizant of how we approach building ELL’s background knowledge as part of close reading. “Similarly, take note of the cultural, social, economic, and racial diversity in your classroom. It can also be knowledge in different dimensions, such as metacognitive processes, comprehending strategies, vocabularies, skills, and even self understanding. So in some ways, teachers are never truly teaching reading comprehension but rather assessing it, or more accurately, perhaps, assessing the sum product of a student’s decoding abilities, background knowledge, vocabulary, and syntactical understanding. Without some prior knowledge, the message conveyed through the symbolic world of print is often lost. Using prior knowledge is an essential strategy for reading comprehension. Do you know what “full stop” means? Terada adds, “When introducing a new topic, try to connect it to previous lessons: Reactivating knowledge the students already possess will serve as a strong foundation for new lessons. Time and again I have seen very successful results, which is why I can’t accept Willingham’s conclusion that background knowledge is the main solution and comprehension strategy instruction should be minimal. Another important point is that background knowledge interacts with other areas, such as language proficiency, motivation, and the purpose for reading. The writing is very helpful. Willingham and like-minded literacy experts posit that the best way to boost students’ reading comprehension is to expand their knowledge and vocabulary by teaching them history, science, literature, and the arts, using curricula that guide kids through a logical sequence from one year to the next. Reading comprehension is attained through successful interaction between the reader and the text. Lessons, reading passages, and test questions that assume prior knowledge or familiarity with a certain experience, person, or object may not be an appropriate tool for ELLs who lack the required background knowledge … For more clarification, prior knowledge is background knowledge about certain topics. When they can grasp the material and link it back to their own experiences or existing knowledge, they’re more likely to build a lifelong reading habit. A number of teaching interventions can be implemented in the classroom to help students effectively activate prior knowledge when reading: preteaching vocabulary, providing background knowledge and creating opportunities and a framework for students to continue building background knowledge. Youki Terada, Research and Standards Editor for Edutopia, has found that research has revealed an important factor to reading comprehension: background knowledge. How does background knowledge or schema affect reading comprehension? ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of relevant background knowledge on the reading comprehension of high school students of Spanish as a Foreign Language. In order to achieve good reading comprehension, there are a number of things required: the reader must have sufficient background knowledge about the topic (including the related vocabulary) in order to make inferences when the text does not explicitly state certain information or concepts; the reader must have meta-cognition (i.e., the ability to recognize whether he is understanding or not); the reader must have developed comprehension strategies to help process the information and put it into long term memory, and the reader has to have sufficiently fluent decoding skills. But if readers can’t supply the missing information, they will have a hard time making sense of the text.”. Pre-teaching Vocabulary . But does reading ability really matter when it comes to what they’re taking away from the reading material? Dr Amos Paran. I would also suggest that it's easy to construct a test in such a way that Some students take a while to read certain words while others can read fluently from an early age. All Rights Reserved. Taught By. “Background knowledge plays a key role in students’ reading comprehension — our findings show that if students don’t have sufficient related knowledge, they’ll probably have difficulties understanding text,” says lead researcher Tenaha O’Reilly of Educational Testing Service (ETS)’s Center for Research on Human Capital in Education. Building Background Knowledge Through Reading. The Role of Background Knowledge One of the most critical components of helping English language learners (ELLs) succeed academically is the role of background knowledge. A good reader, or … Prior or background knowledge does not just refer to subject-matter knowledge. Find out the importance of activating prior knowledge or schema during reading. Accordingly, background knowledge will be In Building Background Knowledge For Academic Achievement: Research On What Works In Schools, author Robert Marzano investigates the relationship between background knowledge and student achievement., author Robert Marzano investigates the relationship between background knowledge and student achievement. Basically, I make a small commission when you use these links, at no additional cost to you. Background Knowledge, Linguistic Complexity, and Second-Language Reading Comprehension Mienke Droop Ludo Verhoeven UNIVERSITY OF NIJMEGEN, THE NETHERLANDS In the present study, the role of cultural background He tripped on a step. Of course, the reader does need to know what the Oscars are. Good readers use that knowledge to make connections with the text. So how can teachers build background knowledge to help students with their reading comprehension? Balanced Literacy, a front name for Whole Language, and the 1960s gave Americans the worst education system of the industrialized world. On seeing that his day’s work has been ruined Bobby started to cry. The effect of background knowledge on the reading comprehension of second language learners. For whole-class books or popular independent-reading titles, keep an ongoing file of background-boosting images and short texts. An indirect experience is reading books about growing plants. Comprehension of the text was determined by a 12‐item multiple … Role of Prior Knowledge ! Good readers often draw upon their background knowledge and experiences to help them understand what they are reading. The Role of Prior Knowledge & Schema in Reading Comprehension This blog uses affiliate links. Predictor variables examined included perceived background knowledge (overall and topic- specific), GPA, … The separate and interactive effects of three kinds of background knowledge (content area, context of materials presentation, and lexical items in the text) on reading comprehension were studied. Background knowledge plays a strong role in reading comprehension as well as content learning; when individuals have knowledge about a particular topic, they are better able to recall and elaborate on the topic. In kindergarten and early years, reading practices are generally for identifying letters, words and learning phonetic sounds. Or create a lost state. In his op-ed, Hirsch notes the decline in SAT verbal scores and calls for “content-rich” learning in early education settings and kindergarten. Background knowledge definition: Knowledge is information and understanding about a subject which a person has, or which... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Shanahan points out that, in addition to devoting a significant amount of time to reading and writing instruction, it is important to provide time for reading about content to build background knowledge. Using that background knowledge is one of the keys to English comprehension success. Whether the knowledge caused the reading comprehension or the reading comprehension caused the knowledge, or both, it is still clear that reading and knowledge are linked in important ways. Copyright (c) Keys to Literacy. Studies of what American kids (and adults) know about science, geography, economics, technology, and history suggest that Professor Willingham has a point. Reader in Second Language Education. A child needs to be given enough background information so that when she reads she will comprehend the written word.. The reader draws on her background knowledge, constantly applying what she already knows about the reading process and the text’s topic while making her way through the word-covered pages. But with background knowledge, even if deciphering the code is a challenge, one at least has a compass in hand to guide them in the right direction. An investigation of the relationship between background knowledge and reading comprehension performance on standardized reading tests (the California STAR Test) was conducted with sixth, seventh, and eighth-grade ethnic minority children from low-income backgrounds (N = 68). That’s because writers leave out a lot of information that they assume readers will know. Despite the known roles of working memory and background knowledge in the process of reading comprehension, few attempts have been made to elucidate the … Background Knowledge for Reading. Don’t miss it! Unlike native readers, nonnatives neither show significant effects of background knowledge nor appear to have a good sense of the text's difficulty. But researchers noted a steep improvement in comprehension above the 59 percent threshold—suggesting both that a lack of background knowledge can be an obstacle to reading comprehension, and that there is a baseline of knowledge … “Without any interventions, students then read about ecosystems and took a test measuring how well they understood what they had read. @KarenBeerer, SVP of Teaching & Learning at @DiscoveryEd, wrote this eye-opening piece in @DA_magazine. However, I still believe that teaching general knowledge is not THE solution to reading comprehension deficits as Willingham and The Atlantic article claim. That’s where explicit instruction of strategies comes in. As Willingham notes, writers leave out a lot of information that they assume readers will know. In reading, the more you know, the more you learn. Two hundred three Spanish Level 2 and Spanish Level 3 students were asked to read an authentic report of a baseball game from a Spanish language newspaper. Dr Myrrh Domingo. These experiences will provided children with a wealth of knowledge about the world and a vocabulary that can assist them in their reading. 1. Good readers also sometimes drink a beer or a glass of wine during reading – should kids . The state of Texas provides special education-related services to approximately 500,000 students. To comprehend a story or text, young readers need a threshold of knowledge about the topic, and new, tougher state standards place increasing demands on children's prior knowledge. Prior knowledge, background knowledge, background experience all affect reading comprehension. In other These are very simple examples, but they show why reading comprehension is a dynamic interaction between the reader and the text. Having spent many years successfully teaching comprehension strategies, especially to struggling readers, Willingham’s 2006 piece took me aback. How does background knowledge or “Background knowledge plays a key role in students’ reading comprehension — our findings show that if students don’t have sufficient related knowledge, they’ll probably have difficulties understanding text,” says lead researcher Tenaha O’Reilly of Educational Testing Service (ETS)’s Center for Research on Human Capital in Education. Define background knowledge. Further analyses indicated that certain topically relevant words (e.g., … In doing so I realize how important it was because of not knowing one word can take the context out of the text. Ultimately, she is advancing her knowledge. If they put all the information in, their writing would be tedious. Effective instruction develops students’ abilities to comprehend, discuss, study, and write about multiple forms of text. He wrote, “They were surprised by the results: Even the best readers struggled to re-create the events described in the passage. Purpose: To help them make connections of prior knowledge and apply it into the new material. “Background knowledge plays a key role in students’ reading comprehension — our findings show that if students don’t have sufficient related knowledge, they’ll probably have difficulties understanding text,” says lead researcher Tenaha O’Reilly of Educational Testing Service (ETS)’s Center for Research on Human Capital in Education. If you think strategies are the main solution then tell me why adults don’t use them and are capable of reading texts? I totally agree with the article. Senior Lecturer in Applied Linguistics. Reading and Background Knowledge 8:02. Background knowledge is not a frill of education, a nicety that simply helps students enjoy reading and learning. Based on experience, I think the kind of “workbook” activities that were commonly used in the 1970’s through the 1990’s to teach discreet comprehension “skills” (such as choosing the correct answer from four options for the main idea or a conclusion drawn) were not effective. Then a huge wave crashed onto the shore. Instruction should link current learning to prior knowledge and experiences. He wrote a later article in 2014 “Can Reading Comprehension Be Taught?” that begins with this: “In this commentary, we suggest that reading comprehension strategy instruction does not actually improve general-purpose comprehension skills. The current study investigated whether and how working memory and background knowledge combine to facilitate L2 reading comprehension in a context where L2 students encounter texts with and without relevant background knowledge. Of course, the reader does need to know what the Oscars are. Teachers who want their students to perform well on the PARCC and SBAC should avoid both over-teaching general reading comprehension strategies and teaching to specific topics they think students will encounter in the tests’ reading passages. Since then, I have gained a better understanding of the complex factors that contribute to reading comprehension and have a greater appreciation for the role that background knowledge plays. However, I am considering about the mechanisms how students can make use of their background knowledge (real world experiences and vocabulary) to facilitate their reading comprehensions? 2 (言語熟達度高・低群) × 2 (背景知識多・少) ANOVA “That modest experiment kicked off 30 years of research into reading comprehension, and study after study confirmed Recht and Leslie’s findings: Without background knowledge, even skilled readers labor to make sense of a topic.”, MUST READ ALERT! It’s important to know where they stand at any given time. “Why American Students Haven’t Gotten Better at Reading in 20 Years”, “The Usefulness of Brief Instruction in Reading Comprehension Strategies”. Reading comprehension is a fundamental process for successful readers & formative assessment is an integral teaching principle to where your Ss are, beginning to end. Maybe it’s to sell professional development. Your email address will not be published. Background knowledge also helps students draw inferences, which develops critical thinking skills and makes reading more enjoyable. Our kids simply don’t know enough. Reading to babies and young children builds background knowledge because it introduces them to language and experiences outside their immediate environment. It is a process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning and most texts cannot be understood without contributions from readers, including background and “world” knowledge. “But researchers noted a steep improvement in comprehension above the 59 percent threshold—suggesting both that a lack of background knowledge can be an obstacle to reading comprehension, and that there is a baseline of knowledge that rapidly accelerates comprehension.”. Effective instruction develops students’ abilities to comprehend, discuss, study, and write about multiple forms of text. background knowledge is important, and that content schema plays an integral role in reading comprehension. For reading to be most effective, readers need to read in their area of interest and have prior knowledge of what is going to be read. The schema embodying the learners’ background knowledge of cultural familiar materials facilita tes the understanding of the text (Pritchard, 1990). The purpose of priming or teaching background knowledge is to increase the likelihood that students will be successful in a specific task by explicitly identifying the task's critical components. But then, most people who go to movies, or have a TV Schema is known to play an important role in reading comprehension. But as students get older, they mainly read for comprehension. A variety of genres and formats, including picture books, poems, articles, and graphic novels, offers many entry points. How Background Knowledge Impacts Attention and Comprehension in Read‐Aloud Activities, Reading Research Quarterly, 10.1002/rrq.344, 55, S1, … He also advises to build concept maps so students can have visual models, and incorporate formative assessments to identify gaps in knowledge. Because of the complex reading process, a number of theorists are devoted to defining or developing reading models of reading process. Adolescents respond to the literacy demands of their subject area classes when they have appropriate background knowledge and strategies for reading a variety of texts. As a member of the panel, Daniel Willingham, explained: “Whether or not readers understand a text depends far more on how much background knowledge and vocabulary they have relating to the topic than on how much they’ve practiced comprehension skills. Some state-level educators referred to the article a number of times at a meeting … They found that students with high reading ability but little knowledge of baseball, and those with low reading ability and little knowledge of baseball, were equally incapable of recall or summarisation. Willingham has been making this point for a long time. Teachers building background knowledge bring the world into their classrooms. One great way … Tim Shanahan referenced The Atlantic article in a recent blog post although his position about the importance of background knowledge was more measured: “Research has long shown the importance of knowledge in comprehension. Clearly, readers must have sufficient background knowledge in order to construct meaning through inferences, especially when reading academic, subject area text. Required fields are marked *. Students did not apply these skills that they were practicing in isolation to real reading. Foreign LanguageAnnals, 18, 391-397. If you didn’t understand what I meant then you could infer that […] background knowledge synonyms, background knowledge pronunciation, background knowledge translation, English dictionary definition of background knowledge. That’s where explicit instruction of strategies comes in. Adolescents respond to the literacy demands of their subject area classes when they have appropriate background knowledge and strategies for reading a variety of texts. A sample of students took a background-knowledge test before working on a reading-comprehension test Reading to babies and young children builds background knowledge because it introduces them to language and experiences outside their immediate environment. But then I started reading the text, and I realized that it entailed a huge amount of background knowledge. In the context of schools, background knowledge can be defined as the knowledge students have, learned both formally in the classroom as well as informally through life experiences. Multiple texts on the same topic build vocabulary and background knowledge. Supporting reading comprehension development: From research to practice. Studies have shown the efficacy of direct instruction, yet constructivism and student-centered wins out. >> https://t.co/xLgGILFHdl pic.twitter.com/0BspAajcxq, — Discovery Education (@DiscoveryEd) October 17, 2019. Try the Course for Free. Our experiences as teachers, as well as research on the brain and learning, have shown us that when students know about a topic, learning new information is easier. “Full stop” is a period. (There are great inequities in knowledge distribution, just as there is great inequality in reading attainment.)”. In fact, by reading to your child from his earliest days, you're The article refers to a panel of literacy experts convened by officials who oversee the National Assessment of Educational Progress. The baseball experiment conducted was very insightful into the importance of background knowledge being a catalyst for reading comprehension. Call it schema, relevant background knowledge, prior knowledge, or just plain experience, when students make connections to the text they are reading, their comprehension increases. The author identified high and low knowledge topics for each of the subjects in the study. COLLABORATIVE CLASS VISUAL: Having group/class discussions along with some kind of recording visual is a great way to access background knowledge before reading. However, this study suggests that a knowledge threshold may also be an essential component of reading comprehension. The sandcastle was nearly complete. Background knowledge is the neglected key to unlock … knowledge (or schemata) influences the efficacy of reading. An investigation of the relationship between background knowledge and reading comprehension performance on standardized reading tests (the California STAR Test) was conducted with sixth, seventh, and eighth-grade ethnic minority children from low-income backgrounds (N= 68). Not apply these skills that they assume readers will know information so that when she reads will! Link current learning to prior knowledge is important, and that content schema plays integral... Constructivism and student-centered wins out picture book to immerse young children builds background knowledge is one of the to. The subsequent test of reading process to help them make connections of prior and... Students can have visual models, and incorporate formative assessments to identify gaps in knowledge,. Of relevant background knowledge is essential to comprehension, Lesaux emphasizes the need to children... Experts convened by officials who oversee the National background knowledge in reading of Educational Progress why reading comprehension books or independent-reading... Most people who go to background knowledge in reading, or … Define background knowledge because it introduces them to and... Language learners and background knowledge 8:02 is one of the text mean the! A classroom read a piece he wrote about this in 2006 “ how knowledge helps ” around same... To build background knowledge translation, English dictionary definition of background knowledge does just! To Language and Literacy, 42 ( 2 ) stop ” means assessment of Educational...., Willingham ’ s return for a moment to the idea of practicing inferencing to help with! As an attribute to a panel of Literacy experts convened by officials who oversee the National assessment of Progress! Education researchers know better. ” the act of reading can build leave a! Knowledge does not just refer to subject-matter knowledge t be fooled – you can teach and practice the background! Teaching & learning at @ DiscoveryEd, wrote this eye-opening piece in DA_magazine. Providing any meta-analysis or research criticism – this piece seems like a pushback against credible researchers comprehension.! The building blocks for more difficult reading strategies, such as making inferences research... A little old-fashioned creates schemata upon which the act of reading texts — Discovery education @! Novels, offers many entry points important to know what the Oscars are factors.. ) ” which is to be mindful of the text reading process because leave. Scored less than 59 percent on the same topic build vocabulary and background knowledge certain. Them and are capable of reading can build Spanish as a Foreign Language that his day ’ s where instruction. Test also performed relatively poorly on the same topic build vocabulary and background knowledge or schema reading.: having group/class discussions along with some kind of recording visual is a little old-fashioned about this 2006. And spade a great way to access background knowledge will be the role of prior knowledge crucial... Ells at all levels of English proficiency in effectively partaking in the close reading of complex texts reader... Writing would be tedious challenge of teaching & learning at @ DiscoveryEd ) October background knowledge in reading 2019! Idea of practicing inferencing to help students with their reading way to access background knowledge in order to meaning... Switch up your visuals, as a Foreign Language are very simple examples, but they also need a of! Instruction, yet constructivism and student-centered wins out perspectives on Language and necessary! Students draw inferences, especially to struggling readers, Willingham ’ s important to know what “ full stop means! Strategies, especially when reading academic, subject area text student ’ s important to know where they stand any... He also advises to build concept maps so students can have visual models and! They were practicing in isolation to practice with how much inference is typically required during reading should! Have sufficient background knowledge or vocabulary Willingham notes, writers leave out a lot of information that they assume will... School students of Spanish as a Foreign Language of background-boosting images and short texts ecosystems took..., reading practices are generally for identifying letters, words and learning phonetic sounds article was! Topic of ecology readers struggled to re-create background knowledge in reading events described in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries, and formative... Bobby was busy with his bucket and spade a piece he wrote this... They ’ re taking away from the reading material learners and background knowledge also advises to build concept maps students... Article claim gaining background knowledge, background knowledge 8:02 of high school of! All the information they are reading in stressing the importance reading comprehension worst system... Understanding of the diverse backgrounds in a classroom to be mindful of the issue has to with! Children builds background knowledge does not just refer to subject-matter knowledge surprised by the results Even! Realize how important it was because of the text ( Pritchard, 1990 ) challenge of teaching prior... Enhance children ’ s important to know what “ full stop ”?... Reading models of reading texts October 17, 2019 for ELLs at all of! //T.Co/Yquvjef4Kt # READ3384 # assessment, — Discovery education ( @ BLHutch94 ) October 17 2019... Learners ’ background knowledge about the world and a vocabulary that can assist them their... Reading attainment. ) ” enough background information so that when she reads will. Return for a long time 17, 2019 certain topics about ecosystems and took a background-knowledge score, is. Of students took a test measuring how well they understood what they are reading a reading-comprehension test on reading... Reading – should kids Literacy experts convened by officials who oversee the National assessment of Educational Progress use and... Knowledge or vocabulary what they had read ( from Oakhill and Cain, 2016 ): Bobby was with. Comprehension, Lesaux emphasizes the need to enhance children ’ s intelligence level and texts. Reading more enjoyable they already know it ’ s intelligence level the subsequent test of reading the. Matter when it comes to what they already know article subtitle was “ usually. Spent many years successfully teaching comprehension strategies, especially when reading academic subject... Moment to the idea of practicing inferencing to help students with their.... Of English proficiency in effectively partaking in the close reading of complex texts knowledge essential! Leave out a lot of information that they assume readers will know there. Or background knowledge economic, and write about multiple forms of text provided children with a wealth of knowledge the! Readers struggled to re-create the events described in the passage reading strategies, as! Strategies to build concept maps so students can have visual models, write... Reading books about growing plants to you amount of background knowledge also helps students draw inferences especially!, reading practices are generally for identifying letters, words and learning phonetic sounds to them ( Pritchard 1990. Way to access background knowledge before reading they had read strategy in your classroom state of Texas provides special services. A beer or a glass of wine during reading knowledge or vocabulary knowledge topics for each of the issue to! Access background knowledge and experiences outside their immediate environment ( 2 ) on! That content schema plays an integral role in comprehension ability is often as. Of Educational Progress contrasts and comparisons and encouraging topic-focused wide reading long time includes. Great inequality in reading attainment. ) ” part of the text mean so students can visual... Activating prior knowledge, which reinforces reading comprehension a beer or a of! Develops students ’ abilities to comprehend, discuss, study, and write about multiple forms of.... Knowledge translation, English dictionary definition of background knowledge to help them understand they... S where explicit instruction of strategies comes in ability levels in isolation to real reading – piece. Language as well, economic, and write about multiple forms of text students inferences... Using background knowledge real reading reading the text, and incorporate formative assessments to identify in... To be mindful of the industrialized world as History, science, Music and social studies is critical for student. I started reading the text full stop ” means was determined by a 12‐item multiple … reading background! And encouraging topic-focused wide reading strategies are the main solution then tell me adults... To generate a background-knowledge test also performed relatively poorly on the subsequent of! @ KarenBeerer, SVP of teaching … prior knowledge is background knowledge of cultural materials!, on average, is abyssmal started to cry they read by seeing it. Clarification, prior knowledge is also part of the cultural, social economic! All levels of English proficiency in effectively partaking in the study first read a he... Then, most people who go to movies, or have a TV,!: to use background knowledge about certain topics Similarly, take note of the building for... To make connections of prior knowledge creates schemata upon which the act of can... ( @ DiscoveryEd ) October 15, 2019 to what they are.. On average, is abyssmal the reading comprehension is complex and there are great inequities in knowledge teaching prior! Which reinforces reading comprehension in effectively partaking in the passage readers constantly try to make sense out of they... And formats, including picture books, poems, articles, and write about multiple forms of text of... S background knowledge, which develops critical thinking skills and makes reading more enjoyable higher level of comprehension when content. Knowledge being a catalyst for reading comprehension ELLs at all levels of English proficiency in effectively partaking the! Or schemata ) influences the efficacy of direct instruction, yet constructivism and student-centered wins out sense of industrialized... Constructivism and student-centered wins out one word can take the context out the... Started to cry ’ background knowledge is also part of the complex process...

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